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Disability services - three models of service delivery

Social Role Valorisation (SRV)
Disability services
Disability and community

Disability services role models
Explanation of terms

Disability services - three models of service delivery
Models of service
The service provider
Characteristics of the service provider
Service role models

Models of service:
Service delivery has five main functions:
… To provide a service to the users,
… To provide the resources (staff, volunteers, facilities, equipment, skills, knowledge etc.) necessary for the service,
… To maintain the service to a standard that can be used by all members.
… To balance the needs of the service users with the needs of the service, and the needs of the community,
… To share and draw on skills / resources where needed.

While a service provider operates within it's own model of care, each community that the service operates within is based on a model that loosely describes it's function or role within society.
Three broad (and simplistic) models could be described as, but not limited to: 
… Social (holistic): is concerned with who we are, and how we socialise with each other. Human interaction with each other and the environment play an important part. Families, ethnic or social groups, hobby clubs are all about how the members interact with each other and how the environment affects the members as a group. Members also have the opportunity to change their own environment to their own needs without affecting the community as a whole. The purpose (objectives, goals, policies etc.) of the community are less formal with less defined roles.

… Professional (holistic/specialised): is concerned with providing an environment that accommodates the particular profession or the activity of the profession (educational / medical / business). The members have to fit in to structured environments that are less accommodating to the needs of individual members and how they interact with each other. Work places, schools, churches, hospitals, boarding houses, nursing homes (even suburbs) are about groups of people, and how the person fits into the environment rather than how the environment fits into the person. The purpose (objectives, goals, policies etc.) of the community is formal with clearly defined roles for its members. Community services are often built around the professional model, where staff or volunteers are employed by the service to support the service users within the goals, values etc. of the service provider. Records are kept on budgets, expenses, care plans, progress notes, medical histories etc.

… Scientific (specialised): is concerned with research, facts and figures. The community is highly structured around a set of standards, procedures and principles that do not allow for individuals. Focus is on objective systematic enquiry of objects, patterns of behavior and interactions, time and resources, balance sheets and budgets, efficiencies of scale, opportunity cost etc. Research communities need to have a consistent approach to inquiry so results can be analysed and compared. Sporting communities are about finding the best performance of the players to achieve a desired outcome - to win the game.

The three models and how they relate to the community of the service provider.

Communities are generally a mixture of the three types (Social, Professional and Scientific). Social groups need to have the freedom to socialise, but also need some order and structure to coordinate activities and work within budgets etc. Work places etc. need formal structures and environments to achieve the desired goals, but there also needs to be some flexibility to allow for individual needs. Scientific communities study, measure and analyse the behavior, performance and the environment of the individual and the group, but they also need to have some flexibility to allow for individual needs.

The least restrictive environment often refers to adapting the environment to suit all members, so that they have an opportunity to participate in activities, share experiences and be a part of their community. How the environment is adapted will depend on it's particular construct (social, professional or scientific), the amount of adaptation that is needed to suite all members and how the members are advantaged or disadvantaged through the adaption.An example of this is in a classroom environment, where a person has a intellectual or physical disability. The adaption is the inclusion of an aide to assist the person has a intellectual or physical disability. How the adaption advantages or disadvantages the others depends on the overall type and the quality of the activities, the opportunity to participate in the activities, share experiences and be a part of their community.

The service provider:
Any service that is provided by an agency, service group or organisation that specialises in looking after the needs of people with disability. The service provider may specialise in a particular area of care (accommodation, recreation, education or employment), or provide services that include all aspects of a person's life. They are generally funded by the Disability Services Commission (DSC) and contracted to provide the service within the policies of the DSC.

Characteristics of the service provider:
... Has formal/informal shared goals, beliefs, values, cultures, institutions etc.
... Is organised within a set of formal/informal beliefs, values, roles, expectations and behaviours
... Hierarchical Structure
... Have ownership of their members
... Members have one or more roles
... There is some form of communication between members
... Have resources that are shared between the members
... Balance the needs of the service provider with the needs of its members
... Share and draw on skills/resources where needed
... Often have communities, clubs, teams, groups etc. within the community

You may say that these are the same characteristics as a community, and I agree. Service providers are communities that are organised around more formalised structures that are accountable to a governing body.

Other characteristics:
... Is accountable to a governing body, committee or government agency
... Operates within a professional capacity in providing a service that is not available in the wider community
... The service is structured around a particular model of care
... The activities of the service in supporting its clients is usually coordinated by the service
... The activities of the members are usually highly organised and structured around the service (set routines, set activities etc.)
... The larger the service the more resources the service needs in supporting its own needs
... The wider community generally supports the activities of the service
... Members are:
1) Staff employed and trained to fulfill the needs of the service provider
2) Clients that receive the service
3) Volunteers that support the staff in service delivery

Service role models: (See Disability services role models)
Service role models are services that:
... Are successful in providing for the needs of its members
... Have been tested in providing the best outcomes for the members
... Have a valued role within the community that it is a part of, and the wider community
... Act as a model for other similar services

Services that look after people with high support needs are often modelled around service models that are successful in providing for the needs of its members.

Four broad types of service role models that support people with high support needs could be described as:
... Full integration
... Partial integration
... Enclaves
... Segregated (isolated)

Shows the relationship between the needs and the type of setting in which the activity is placed.
Participants have the opportunity to move from one setting to another according to their own needs as well as the needs of the community.

When providing the most appropriate care for people with high support needs ...
1) The community is not where the person is living, but where the person participates, shares experiences and has valued relationships with others.
2) People with high support needs (severe disability, aged etc.) will always need support structures as a part of their lives.
3) The amount of participation in a community (living, education, employment or recreation) is directly related to the skills and resources of the person, and, the skills and resources of the community that the person wishes to participate in.
4) Institutions are going to be around in one form or another whether we like it or not, It is the way that they are used that is the problem.
5) The institutions of a society towards a particular group determine the way the group participates in society.
6) The institutions of a particular government department, organisation, profession or service define the way the person is supported within that society.
7) Facilities that support people with high support needs do not need to be the nursing homes or prisons in the sense that they are today, but can become warm inviting community places that offer a range of services to the community, as well as be a part of the wider community within that society.
8) People with high support needs are a minority group in our society, and will have the same problems as other minority groups in being a part of society.

Peter Anderson