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Normalisation, Social Role Valorisation, the Least Restrictive Principle and Person Centered Planning


Normalisation (N)

Social Role Valorisation (SRV)

The Least Restrictive Principle (LRP)

Person Centred Planning (PCP)

Transitional planning (TP)


Normalisation (N): (Top)
The principle of normalisation can be described as:
“The normalisation principle means making available to all people with disabilities people patterns of life and conditions of everyday living which are as close as possible to the regular circumstances and ways of life or society.” (Bengt Nirje, The basis and logic of the normalisation principle, Sixth International Congress of IASSMD, Toronto, 1982).

Normalisation then, is the process of providing disadvantaged people the opportunity to experience the same normal patterns of life and normal experiences as others in the society.

Social Role Valorisation (SRV): (Top)
SRV has evolved from Normalisation. The idea is that people are treated according to their social role. People with a high social role will have a better life style to people with a low social role. The conditions that people with high support needs live in is directly related to their low social role in society. Wolfensberger argues that these people are devalued, and that by providing valued roles – to Enhance Social Images and to Enhance Personal Competencies – people with disability will more likely be afforded the things that others take for granted.

Wolfensberger talks about how people with high support needs are devalued, and various strategies that can be used, where they can be included in the normal activities of society and are a part of society, through the development of valued roles, social images and personal competencies.

 The Least Restrictive Principle (LRP): (Top)
Also referred to as the "Least Restrictive Alternative" usually refers to changing or modifying an environment or setting, that allows the person to participate as much as possible with the least restrictions, so that the person has the same opportunity as others to participate in normal community activities such as living, education, employment and recreation.

While SRV looks at the social values that these people were assigned by society (enhancing social images and personal competencies) and N looks at the activities and social settings that these people lived in, both paradigms contain elements of LRP, and are an attempt to normalise (or institutionalise) a particular behavior, activity, expectation and policy within society that provides a better lifestyle for people with high support needs. Unfortunately, people with high support needs need various support mechanisms as a part of their life, and will always need a structured environment to meet their needs.

The Least Restrictive Principle could also describe the least restrictive intervention, where, there is a choice of more than one intervention within a personalised support programme for a person. Just because the intervention is the least restrictive does not mean that there are no restrictions in the intervention. Mostly it means that there are different restrictions in the intervention.

 Person Centred Planning (PCP): (Top)
PCP (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Person_Centred_Planning) follows on from the ideas of N, SRV and LRP in providing a way of planning for the future.
The focus is on the person and his/her needs and finding the best ways the person can realise those plans. Supports are designed around the person, rarther that the person having to fit into the service. The goal is for the person to be able to live as normal live as possible, to have valued relationships, share experiences, and participate in normal social activities the same as others in society.

PCP is based on the assumption that the skills and resources are available in each community that the person wishes to participate in.

 Transitional planning (TP): (Top)
Simular to PCP, TP is about planning a move from one setting to another setting. When moving house to another location, for example, there are a lot of things to consider in the move. Moving is not only about moving our posessions, it is also contacting any services (water, elect etc.), planning the move, scouting the new locating and finding the services and getting involved in the local activities. It is also about finding local communities and building relationships within those communities. This is a difficult transition for any normal person, but for a person with high support needs, it can be almost impossible and requires a specialised service that can facilitate the move.

N, SRV, LRP, PCP or TP: (Top)

When using the N, SRV, LRP, PCP or TP in relocating a person to another setting or environment, we need to ask:
    Are we really acting in the best interests of the person?
    Are we really acting in the best interests of the community in which the person is being placed?

The goals of N and SRV are designed to improve the lives of people with high support needs. Relocating a person may disadvantage the person in any number of ways.
    Access to proper medical care
    Access to social activities
    The opportunity to develop valued relationships and experiences etc.
If the community (living, education, employment or recreation) that the person is being placed in does not have the proper skills or resources to provide for the person's needs that person will be disadvantaged.

When providing the most appropriate care for people with high support needs ...
1) The community is not where the person is living, but where the person participates, shares experiences and has valued relationships with others.
2) People with high support needs (severe disability, aged etc.) will always need support structures as a part of their lives.
3) The amount of participation in a community (living, education, employment or recreation) is directly related to the skills and resources of the person, and, the skills and resources of the community that the person wishes to participate in.
4) Institutions are going to be around in one form or another whether we like it or not, It is the way that they are used that is the problem.
5) The institutions of a society towards a particular group determine the way the group participates in society.
6) The institutions of a particular government department, organisation, profession or service define the way the person is supported within that society.
7) Facilities that support people with high support needs do not need to be the nursing homes or prisons in the sense that they are today, but can become warm inviting community places that offer a range of services to the community, as well as be a part of the wider community within that society.
8) People with high support needs are a minority group in our society, and will have the same problems as other minority groups in being a part of society.

Peter Anderson