Valorisation, the Least Restrictive Principle and Person Centered
The principle of
normalisation can be
“The normalisation principle means making available to all people with
disabilities people patterns of life and conditions of everyday living
which are as close as possible to the regular circumstances and ways of
life or society.” (Bengt Nirje, The basis and logic of the
normalisation principle, Sixth International Congress of IASSMD,
Normalisation then, is the process of providing disadvantaged people
the opportunity to experience
the same normal patterns of life and normal experiences as others in
SRV has evolved from
idea is that people are treated
according to their social role. People with a high social role will
have a better life style to people with a low social role. The
conditions that people with high support needs live in is directly
related to their low social role in society. Wolfensberger argues that
these people are devalued, and that by providing valued roles – to
Enhance Social Images and to Enhance Personal Competencies – people
with disability will more likely be afforded the things that others
take for granted.
Wolfensberger talks about how people with high support needs are
devalued, and various strategies that can be used, where they can be
included in the normal activities of society and are a part of society,
through the development of valued roles, social images and personal
Also referred to as the
Alternative" usually refers to changing or modifying
an environment or setting, that
allows the person to participate as much as possible with the least
restrictions, so that the person has the same opportunity as others to
participate in normal community activities such as living, education,
employment and recreation.
While SRV looks at the social values that these people were assigned by
society (enhancing social images and personal competencies) and N looks
at the activities and social settings that these people lived in, both
paradigms contain elements of LRP, and are an attempt to normalise (or
institutionalise) a particular behavior, activity, expectation and
policy within society that provides a better lifestyle for people with
high support needs. Unfortunately, people with high support needs need
various support mechanisms as a part of their life, and will always
need a structured environment to meet their needs.
Least Restrictive Principle could also
describe the least restrictive intervention, where, there is a choice
than one intervention within a personalised support programme for a
Just because the intervention is the least restrictive does not mean
are no restrictions in the intervention. Mostly it means that there are
restrictions in the intervention.
from the ideas of N, SRV and LRP in providing a way of planning for the
The focus is on the person and his/her needs and finding the best ways
the person can realise those plans. Supports are designed around the
person, rarther that the person having to fit into the service. The
goal is for the person to be able to live as normal live as possible,
to have valued relationships, share experiences, and participate in
normal social activities the same as others in society.
PCP is based on the assumption that the skills and resources are
available in each community that the person wishes to participate in.
Simular to PCP, TP is
about planning a
move from one setting to another
setting. When moving house to another location, for example, there are
a lot of things to consider in the move. Moving is not only about
moving our posessions, it is also contacting any services (water,
elect etc.), planning the move, scouting the new locating and finding
the services and getting involved in the local activities. It is also
about finding local communities and building relationships within those
communities. This is a difficult transition for any normal person, but
for a person with high support needs, it can be almost impossible and
requires a specialised service that can facilitate the move.
N, SRV, LRP, PCP or TP:
When using the N, SRV, LRP, PCP or TP in relocating a person to another
setting or environment, we need to ask:
Are we really acting in the best
interests of the
Are we really acting in the best
interests of the
community in which
the person is being placed?
The goals of N and SRV are designed to improve the lives of people with
high support needs. Relocating a person may disadvantage the person in
any number of ways.
Access to proper medical care
Access to social activities
The opportunity to develop valued
If the community (living, education, employment or recreation) that the
person is being placed in does not have the proper skills or resources
to provide for the person's needs that person will be disadvantaged.
When providing the most
care for people with high support
1) The community is not
person is living, but where the
person participates, shares experiences and has valued relationships
2) People with high support needs (severe disability, aged etc.)
will always need support structures as a part of their lives.
3) The amount of participation in a community (living, education,
employment or recreation) is directly related to the skills and
resources of the person, and, the skills and resources of the
community that the person wishes to participate in.
4) Institutions are going to be around in one form or another
whether we like it or not, It is the way that they are used that is the
5) The institutions of a society towards a particular group
determine the way the group participates in society.
6) The institutions of a particular government department,
profession or service define the way the person is supported within
7) Facilities that support people with high support needs do not
need to be the nursing homes or prisons in the
that they are today, but can become warm inviting community places that
offer a range of services to the community, as well as be a part of the
wider community within that society.
8) People with high support needs are a minority group in our
society, and will have the same problems as other minority groups in
being a part of society.