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The role of government policy and practice in the community

Government policy and practice (the institutions of government, and how these institutions determine the decision making process towards interventions in community practice).

The various programs or strategies designed to support disadvantaged people in society have evolved through a process that could be best describes as "trial and error" in response to various social issues within society. Government resopnds to an issue by creating a department to deal with the issue.

Universities and institutions use historical and evedance based research related to the issue within that arena.
People with an intellectual disability are supported within the psychiatric/developmental arena
People with a physical disability are supported within the physical/occupational arena
The aged are supported within the gerontology arena

Each Government, state, department or locality has a different approach to supporting disadvantaged people in society..
There are a number of reasons for this
... Historical development of government policy: Each government has a different economic and social structure and a different politicial framework that fulfills the needs of the state.
... Political
agenda: While a particular political party sets the agenda in policy and practice within a state, it is the social institutions of the various departments that determine how the policy and practice is used in wider community.
... Community needs: Each policy has evolved to suite the needs of the state. Because each has different needs, these policies will be different.

(Leutz (1999: 83-87), from Michael Fine1, Kuru Pancharatnam and Cathy Thomson, Social Policy Research Centre,
Coordinated and Integrated Human Service Delivery Models, Final Report, March 2000,

When providing the most appropriate care for people with high support needs ...
1) The community is not where the person is living, but where the person participates, shares experiences and has valued relationships with others.
2) People with high support needs (severe disability, aged etc.) will always need support structures as a part of their lives.
3) The amount of participation in a community (living, education, employment or recreation) is directly related to the skills and resources of the person, and, the skills and resources of the community that the person wishes to participate in.
4) Institutions are going to be around in one form or another whether we like it or not, It is the way that they are used that is the problem.
5) The institutions of a society towards a particular group determine the way the group participates in society.
6) The institutions of a particular government department, organisation, profession or service define the way the person is supported within that society.
7) Facilities that support people with high support needs do not need to be the nursing homes or prisons in the sense that they are today, but can become warm inviting community places that offer a range of services to the community, as well as be a part of the wider community within that society.
8) People with high support needs are a minority group in our society, and will have the same problems as other minority groups in being a part of society.